Net Profit Ratio

True Tamplin

Written by True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®
Updated on August 24, 2021

What Is Net Profit (NP) Ratio?

Net profit ratio (also known as net profit margin) is the calculation of net profit after tax as a percentage of net sales.

Formula

The Formula to calculate NP ratio is as:
net-profit-ratio-formula
Both the components of the formula (i.e., net profit and net sales) are usually available from trading and profit and loss account or income statement.
(NP ratio taken together with the return on equity (ROE) ratio, shows how well the company marks up its goods for sale and how well it manages to contain its indirect expenses within the gross profit margin. As explained in the gross profit ratio, certain companies with heavier overheads need to have a higher gross profit margin.
If we take gross profit as a percentage of sales (gross profit ratio) and then relate it to the net profit as a percentage to sales (net profit ratio), we can evaluate the efficacy of the company’s pricing policy. If a high gross profit margin does not translate into an adequate net profit percentage, one of the reasons may be that higher prices are affecting the sales volume and therefore, the overall profit is dropping. The other reason could be that the indirect expenses (i.e., overheads) are too high in relation to the volume of business handled.

Example:

The following information has been extracted from the accounting records of John Trading Concern:
Gross sales: $4,850,000
Sales returns: $50,000
Net profit before tax: $960,000
Corporation tax rate: 50%
Calculate net profit ratio of the John Trading Concern.

Solution

NP ratio = ($480,000*/$4,800,000**) × 100
= 10%
*Net profit after tax = 960,000 × 0.5
= $480,000
**Net sales = $4,850,000 – $50,000
= $4,800,000
Interpretation:
The NP ratio of the John trading concern is 10% which is a good return on sales for a trading concern. However a true evaluation of the management’s efficiency in generating a return on sales is possible only by comparing the ratio with others in the industry or with the industry’s average net profit ratio.

Net Profit Ratio Calculator

True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

About the Author
True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

True Tamplin is a published author, public speaker, CEO of UpDigital, and founder of Finance Strategists.

True contributes to his own finance dictionary, Finance Strategists, and has spoken to various financial communities such as the CFA Institute, as well as university students like his Alma mater, Biola University, where he received a bachelor of science in business and data analytics.

To learn more about True, visit his personal website, view his author profile on Amazon, his interview on CBS, or check out his speaker profile on the CFA Institute website.

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