Aside from the basic concepts and procedures related to the issuance and subsequent accounting for bonds payable, there are other issues concerning bonds that all accountants need to be familiar with.
Bonds Issued at a Premium or Discount Between Interest Dates
Bonds are likely to be sold between interest dates at either a discount or a premium. When this occurs, the discount or premium and the accrued interest must be accounted for separately.
To demonstrate, assume that the Valenzuela Corporation issues $100,000, 12%, 5-year term bonds on 1 March 2020. The bonds are dated 1 January 2020. They are issued at a discount to yield 14% and pay interest semiannually on 2 January and 1 July.
The price of the bonds net of the discount is $93,094, and the accrued interest is $2,000 ($100,000 x 0.06 x 2/6 = $2,000). The entry to record this issue is:
In this example, the cash proceeds that the firm receives of $95,094 consist of the proceeds from the bond of $93,094 plus the accrued interest of $2,000.
The discount of $6,906 is the difference between the face value of the bond and the issue price net of the interest of $93,094. The bonds payable are recorded at their face value of $100,000.
When the first interest payment is made, the below entry is passed (assuming straight-line amortization).
It’s worth noting that the discount is amortized over only 58 months, or 4 years and 10 months, not 5 years. This is because the bonds had a remaining life of only 58 months when they were issued on 1 March 2020.
Subsequent interest payments and discount amortization should be made in the usual way.
Year-End Accruals of Interest Expense
It is likely that the issuing firm’s year-end will not coincide with an interest payment date. We showed the proper accounting procedures to handle this situation when bonds are issued at par.
It is a simple extension to handle premiums or discounts in this situation. To demonstrate, we will again use the data from Valenzuela Corporation presented above. However, we will assume that the company’s year-end is 30 September.
An adjusting entry must be made on this date to record an interest accrual of three months since the last interest payment date is on 1 July 2020. The entry, assuming straight-line amortization, is:
As this entry shows, the cash interest must be accrued and the discount should be amortized for three months. On 2 January 2021, when the interest is paid, the following entry is made:
In this entry, the Interest Payable account is debited and the Interest Expense account is recorded for the three-month period from 1 October 2020 to 2 January 2021. The Discount on Bonds Payable is also amortized for the same three-month period.
Bond Issue Costs
When a corporation issues bonds, various expenses are incurred. Examples are printing, engraving, legal, and accounting costs.
Furthermore, many bonds are marketed through investment bankers who receive a commission for underwriting the bond issue. These costs result in the issuers receiving less cash than they otherwise would.
Under current accounting principles, these costs are accumulated in a non-current asset account called Bond Issue Costs. They are amortized over the life of the bond on a straight-line basis.